Milk is considered a complete food from the times of our ancestors. Its nutritional value is very high and perishable.
It is thus processed in various ways, giving us a variety of by-products, high in nutritional value and longer shelf life.
In this blog, let us look at most common by-products of milk.
First and foremost, raw milk is pasteurized by heating and at a certain temperature to destroy any bacteria and enzymes present, before it is processed.
It is the fat component of milk and is heavier, thus, it easily accumulates forming a layer, which can be easily separated using a spoon, leaving behind skimmed milk as another by-product.
This however, is only a simple and slow process.
Cream can be separated from the milk using appropriate equipment. It can be of different types, depending on its fat component; single or light cream (18% fat component) or double of heavy cream (30% fat component).
This cream is then packed and stored at low temperature.
It is used as an accompaniment to coffee, as a filling in cakes, and an ingredient in ice-cream.
Butter, is a semi-solid mass that contains 80-85% of milk fat. It is derived by thoroughly churning pasteurized milk, which helps separate milk-fat and water. With further processing, a white/yellow non-salted/salted smooth textured by-product is derived. It is then packed in either greaseproof paper or foil wrappers.
It holds high value and demand asan ingredient in other food processing like confectionery and bakery uses, etc..
Ghee is a high demand by-product of milk. It is used in some countries as a domestic ingredient for local food production (for example bakeries and confectionery manufacturers), and as an export commodity.
It is derived in 2 ways; by heating and clarifying butter at 40 degrees or by boiling cream until milk proteins start to coagulate, forming particles, and the color of the cream darkens.
Purified ghee is then stored at room temperature.
Fermented milk products like yogurt, cheese, etc. are obtained by adding proportions of enzymes to pasteurized milk, which reacts with the lactose present in it.
Yoghurt is unsweetened or sweetened, set, or stirred. Curd is the name given to a yoghurt-type product made from buffalo milk.
It is usually stored in plastic containers and has a shelf life of 3-8 days. It can also be flavored, using natural or artificial agents.
Cheese is derived by a combined working of lactic acid present in the milk and an enzyme known as rennet, which may be externally added to milk. It is a concentrated form of milk fat and milk protein.
The taste and color difference among various types of cheese is a result of differences in the type of milk and processing undertaken.
It is stored at a low temperature, within 4-10 degrees and has a shelf life of day to months depending on its type
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